The toughness, strength, and translucence of porcelain, relative to other types of pottery , arises mainly from vitrification and the formation of the mineral mullite within the body at these high temperatures. Porcelain slowly evolved in China and was finally achieved depending on the definition used at some point about 2, and 1, years ago, then slowly spread to other East Asian countries, and finally Europe and the rest of the world. Its manufacturing process is more demanding than that for earthenware and stoneware , the two other main types of pottery, and it has usually been regarded as the most prestigious type of pottery for its delicacy, strength, and its white colour. It combines well with both glazes and paint, and can be modelled very well, allowing a huge range of decorative treatments in tablewares, vessels and figurines. It also has many uses in technology and industry. The European name, porcelain in English, come from the old Italian porcellana cowrie shell because of its resemblance to the translucent surface of the shell. Porcelain is also referred to as china or fine china in some English-speaking countries, as it was first seen in imports from China. Properties associated with porcelain include low permeability and elasticity ; considerable strength , hardness , toughness , whiteness , translucency and resonance ; and a high resistance to chemical attack and thermal shock. Nymphenburg porcelain group modelled by Franz Anton Bustelli , Porcelain has been described as being “completely vitrified, hard, impermeable even before glazing , white or artificially coloured, translucent except when of considerable thickness , and resonant”.
Russian “Gzhel ” Faience /Hand Painted Blue on White Vase / Circa 1950’s 1960’s
Sasha Krotov The N. Krupskaya confectionery was established in and is currently one of the largest sweets manufacturers in Russia. Eventually, in , this candy label became the factory trademark.
Russian Porcelain factories marks and signs with examples. 1 – Astrachan porcelain 2 – Gardner (Verbilky) porcelain 3 – Dulyovo porcelain 4 – Gzhel porcelain 5 – Lomonosov factory sign 6 – Lomonosov porcelain 7 – Lomonosov porcelain sign 8 – Lomonosov porcelain sign 9 – Lomonosov porcelain sign 10 – Lomonosov porcelain sign 11 – Lomonosov porcelain sign 12 – Lomonosov porcelain .
Map The Museum of MoscowRussian: Together, these tell the story of Moscow from ancient settlements to the modern-day metropolis. This collection is an ongoing compilation, beginning almost years ago when the museum first opened. It was reopened in and equipped with state-of-the-art technology. Exhibits reflect every aspect of city life, including numerous documents and maps, paintings and photographs, archaeological findings, household items and clothes, coins, books, and much more.
Vasnetsov, a renowned artist and an expert in the study of the city of Moscow. Visual art exhibits include paintings, engravings and drawings demonstrating what Moscow was like at different periods.
“meissen porcelain” stock photos
Rossiyskaya Gazeta Tatiana Khoroshilova Historically, the ceramics trade takes its name from a vast area near Moscow that unites 27 villages and rural communities, collectively referred to as the Gzhel cluster. It remains a small village on the river Gzhelka sealed with a dike. The village is home to little more than seven hundred residents, while over 1, are engaged in manufacturing white and blue pottery at small workshops sprinkled throughout the local rural communities. The villages of the area seamlessly merge into an integrated rural area, with its residents traditionally engaged in pottery making.
Dating Your Piece The company’s logo has changed over the years as well, so you should be able to determine a bit about the age of your porcelain based on this. Earliest pieces bear a .
Carpenter I have a 10 inch bowl with the branch and 3nK marking but no red cccp I cannot find any info either. Have you found out anything yet? Peter admin Many thanks for giving me a nudge on this one. I had fun researching this one! It sent me down a fascinating journey. Mikhail Kalinin was in fact no more than some minor politician of the Soviet era who headed that region at the time of the revolution and in the period after.
Here’s how a website listing all major Russian ceramic makers and potteries a fantastic hidden resource online for those interested in hard to get information on Russian ceramics describes the history of this china manufacturer: On the 9th of June, , it was sold to A.
Museum of Moscow
List of Chinese inventions Porcelain originated in China. There is no precise date to separate the production of proto-porcelain from that of porcelain. Porcelain items in the sense that we know them today could be found in the Tang Dynasty,  and archaeological finds have pushed the dates back to as early as the Han Dynasty BC — AD. Bowl with dragons, phoenixes, gourds, and characters for happiness.
Find great deals on eBay for russian gzhel porcelain. Shop with confidence.
List of Chinese inventions Porcelain originated in China. Although proto-porcelain wares exist dating from the Shang Dynasty — BCE , by the Eastern Han Dynasty period — glazed ceramic wares had developed into porcelain. The exact dividing line between proto-porcelain and porcelain wares is not a clear one to date. Porcelain items in the sense that we know them today could be found in the Tang Dynasty,  and archaeological finds has pushed the dates back to as early as the Han Dynasty BCE — CE.
Eventually, porcelain and the expertise required to create it began to spread into other areas of East Asia. During the Song Dynasty — , artistry and production had reached new heights. The manufacture of porcelain became higly organised and the kiln sites, those excavated from this period, could fire as many as 25, wares. Some of the most well-known Chinese porcelain art styles arrived in Europe during this era, such as the coveted blue-and-white wares.
Later, Portuguese merchants began direct trade over the sea route with the Ming Dynasty in and were followed by Dutch merchants in It was a Chinese gift for Louis the Great of Hungary in Section of a letter from Francois Xavier d’Entrecolles about Chinese porcelain manufacturing techniques, , re-published by Jean-Baptiste Du Halde in These exported Chinese porcelains were held in such great esteem in Europe that in the English language china became a commonly—used synonym for the Franco-Italian term porcelain.
Apart from copying Chinese porcelain in faience tin glazed earthenware , the soft-paste Medici porcelain in 16th-century Florence was the first real European attempt to reproduce it, with little success. Early 16th century, the Portuguese brought back samples of kaolin clay, which they discovered in China to be essential in the production of porcelain wares, but the Chinese techniques and composition to manufacture porcelain was not yet fully understood.
The History of Russian Porcelain
While in the process of reforming the Russian monetary system, Tsar Peter I’s silver assay charter fixed the production of silversmiths to four standard silver purities: A zolotnik is an obsolete Russian weight measure and within this system there are 96 zolotniki to a troy pound, thus: As from , the standard of 72 zolotniki. As from , the 84 zolotniki. The Assay Charter of February 13th also stipulated that all gold and silver marks must be registered and objects made of these precious metals must carry; a master’s or maker’s mark, an assayer’s mark, a fineness Example of 19th Cent.
Russian Hallmarks or standard mark, and a town mark.
Gzhel is a tradition Russian style of ceramics. It takes its name from the village of Gzhel situated near Moscow. Gzhel potters developed in s high quality white earthenware, which is painted in a traditional blue on white manner.
Chinese ceramics Porcelain originated in China , and it took a long time to reach the modern material. There is no precise date to separate the production of proto-porcelain from that of porcelain. Although proto-porcelain wares exist dating from the Shang Dynasty — BC , by the time of the Eastern Han Dynasty period BC— AD , glazed ceramic wares had developed into porcelain, on a Chinese definition as high-fired ware.
The wares were already exported to the Islamic world , where they were highly prized. From Peabody Essex Museum. Eventually, porcelain and the expertise required to create it began to spread into other areas of East Asia. During the Song Dynasty — AD , artistry and production had reached new heights. The manufacture of porcelain became highly organised, and the kiln sites excavated from this period could fire as many as 25, wares. Some of the most well-known Chinese porcelain art styles arrived in Europe during this era, such as the coveted blue-and-white wares.
In , Portuguese merchants began direct trade by sea with the Ming Dynasty, and in , Dutch merchants followed. We can identify the most valued types by their association with the court, either as tribute offerings, or as products of kilns under imperial supervision. During the Ming dynasty, Jingdezhen porcelain become a source of imperial pride. The Yongle emperor erected a white porcelain brick-faced pagoda at Nanjing, and an exceptionally smoothly glazed type of white porcelain is peculiar to his reign.
Watering Cans Teapots The teapot part of the collection started somewhat accidentally, when I had to buy a teapot in order to get a creamer that I wanted. Then — just like with the silver and Staffordshire ones — when we moved to England for a couple years, things changed. So now there are some two hundred, some here, some shown in other theme sections. They can be found down at the bottom of the page. These two are my favorites.
Gzhel is a Russian style of blue and white ceramics which takes its name from the village of Gzhel and surrounding area, where it has been produced since
Porcelain is generally believed to have originated in China. Although proto-porcelain wares exist dating from the Shang Dynasty about BCE, by the Eastern Han Dynasty BCE high firing glazed ceramic wares had developed into porcelain, and porcelain manufactured during the Tang Dynasty period — was exported to the Islamic world, where it was highly prized.
Eventually, porcelain and the expertise required to create it began to spread into other areas; by the seventeenth century, it was being exported to Europe. Korean and Japanese porcelain also have long histories and distinct artistic traditions. European porcelain Editar Letter of Francois Xavier d’Entrecolles about Chinese porcelain manufactuting techniques, , published by du Halde in These exported Chinese porcelains of the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries were held in such great esteem in Europe that in the English language china became a commonly—used synonym for the Franco-Italian term porcelain.
Apart from copying Chinese porclelain in faience tin glazed earthenware , the soft-paste Medici porcelain in 16th-century Florence was the first real European attempt to reproduce it, with little success. It appears that in this discovery technology transfer from East Asia played little part. The Chinese manufacturing secrets for porcelain manufacturing were revealed by the Jesuit Father Francois Xavier d’Entrecolles in , and openly published in One of the first results of the collaboration between the two was the development of a red stoneware that resembled the red stoneware of Yixing.
A workshop note records that the first specimen of hard, white European porcelain was produced in January At the time, the research was still being supervised by Tschirnhaus; however, he died in October of that year.